Recently there is a lot of fuss over a supermassive black hole of about 6-7 billion solar masses at the core of the galaxy M87 (Messier 87) some 55 million light years from Earth in the Virgo Galaxy cluster. The star-system oriented scientific community has even taken the first-ever algorithmic picture of a black hole obtained by the Event Horizon Telescope ⎯ an international collaboration network of eight radio telescopes almost spanning the entire globe. But the existence of a black hole is a delusion — a physical and logical absurdity. There is no black hole at the core of the galaxy M87 or at the core of any other galaxy in our universe. My reasoning is based on the higher (or deeper) level of universal principles that make possible the comprehension of the problem of black holes without any technical training of the subject.

A black hole is a logical consequence of General Relativity theory. If we assume that the mass m of a living spherical body, say a stellar body, of radius r,is a simple individual conditioned by linear time and that the force of gravity residing in this simple mass is uniquely attractive, then under the action of this simple force, the evolving and energy consuming body begins a process of one-way contraction and reduction of its radius to become a black hole whose limit is the singularity. Indeed, when the body reaches a maximum contraction and for a given constant mass m its radius r is reduced to zero, then the spherical body collapses into an absolute nothingness ⎯ a singularity of zero size and infinite density, which is geometrically represented by an extensionless point of infinite curvature.

Here singularity and its immanent property of infinite density have a lethal meaning expressing the state of maximum disorder called death of the time-conditioned and contracting living body. Infinity is conceived as the absolute negation and destructive limit (end) of the living body and its vibrating light, which in turn leads us to regard it as a “ monstrous” infinity and its correlative singularity, as a “violent” or  “black” singularity absorbing through its maximum gravitational pull everything and radiating nothing, neither matte-energy, nor information.1

However, if we assume that the mass m of a living spherical body is a time-independent complex whole divisible into contrary parts, the gravitational mass mg and its equal and opposite anti-gravitational inertial mass mi, from which emanates a complex force of gravity divisible into equal and opposite forces ⎯ namely the force of attractive gravity G residing in the gravitational mass mg⎯ and its equal and opposite force of repulsive gravity (anti-gravity) F residing in the anti-gravitational inertial mass mi, then we have the following case: When the evolving and energy consuming spherical body of mass m is in a process of contraction or reduction of its radius r caused by its inherent force of attractive gravity G at the same time and in virtue of the equivalences mg = mi and F = G, the same spherical body restores or creates its consumed energy by undertaking the equal and opposite process of dilation or extension of its radius r by means of its inherent force of repulsive gravity F. Mutually composed and neutralized, these contrary forces of matter produce on the total a constant and balanced spherical body (for example star, cell or planet), whose mass density is the density of life equal to  the density of water D = 100 g/cm3 regarded as unity.2  This constant and moderate mass density of the living spherical body is free of variation ⎯ of consumption and creation of energy, of contraction and extension ⎯ by virtue of comprising the totality of variations.  

Let us denote by D, the spherical body’s infinite density produced by the maximum contraction of its radius r, and by D0, the spherical body’s zero density produced by the maximum extension of its radius r. We may then define the real mass density D, of the constant and balanced spherical body, which is equal to the water density 1, as the logical product and geometric mean of infinite and zero densities:

D = 1 = D × D0.

The above shows that insofar we symmetrize the infinite density D, by means of comprising its inverse zero density D0, the infinite density ceases to be a “monstrous” infinity and its correlative singularity ceases to be “violent” and “lethal”. In fact, it becomes ultimately (on the whole) a “living” and “intelligent” singularity, which insofar is a complex infinity symmetrically produced by the simultaneous maximum contraction and dilation of the spherical body, it constitutes the very source and necessary condition of the continuously balanced and living spherical body whose mass density is roughly the constant and moderate density of water D = 100 g/cm3 equal to 1.

So we distinguish two kinds of infinities or singularities: i) A lethal or black singularity produced by the simple and asymmetric perception of mass governed by the 2nd Law of thermodynamics, that is, the law of maximization of disorder and degeneration (consumption) of matter-energy and information, and ii) a living and intelligent singularity ⎯ a mind-singularity ⎯ enveloping, composing and neutralizing the extreme opposites, for example infinite density and zero density, to produce the temperate density of life equal to unity. This enveloping synthetic singularity is the logical consequence of a complex and symmetric conception of mass governed by the 1st law of thermodynamics known as a conservation law of order and life, of matter-energy and information. Indeed, every conservation law originates from the underlying symmetry of Nature, that is, from the underlying unity of opposites, which the Ephesian philosopher Heraclitus called the synthetic logos of Nature qua permanent complex whole.

If the 2nd law of thermodynamics is not a genuine principle of the physical object but an artificial principle of our simple (analytic) and asymmetrical mode of perceiving the object through our finite neuronal brain and its finite tools, then any black singularity produced by this asymmetrical (one-way) perception of mass is necessarily a delusion ⎯a physical and logical absurdity. There is no black hole and no black singularity at the end point of an asymmetrically collapsing mass because ultimately (on the whole) there is no asymmetrically collapsing mass. 

Per contra, if through our infinite mind ⎯ the Anaxagorian infinite nous or the Heraclitean synthetic logos ⎯ we have a complex and symmetric conception of spherical mass governed by the 1st law of thermodynamics, then ultimately (on the whole), as we have claimed, the mass is free from collapsing into a black singularity by virtue of symmetrizing its process of maximum contraction through the simultaneous introduction of the inverse process of maximum expansion. From these mutually composed and neutralized processes we obtain a continuously vibrating and recycling mass, which is dynamically stable and balanced and has the temperate density of water equal to unity. Far from destroying the continuously vibrating mass, the symmetrized infinite density constitutes its source and ground. We have reached here a positive conception of the maximum or infinite, which means that we can maximize or infinitize any quantity of a given kind, for example, the mass density of the vibrating mass, without destroying it, under the condition that we symmetrize this maximum quantity. 

Finally, if Nature is a balanced, permanent and self-contained whole because of its inherent spherical symmetry, then there are no black holes leading to violent singularities or “monstrous” infinities in its cosmological, stellar and quantum scales. In fact, insofar Nature as a self-contained whole continuously recycles its total matter-energy-information everywhere at all times, it is at every point in space-time an intelligent and living infinite whole  ⎯ a continuously vibrating mind-singularity enveloping the entire maximally expanding and contracting universe without destroying its infinite variation according to increase and decrease. This singularity radiates electromagnetic and gravitational waves in a finite wavelength λ that come to us because of the maximum expansion and contraction of the universe in infinite and zero wavelengths, in zero and infinite energies, and in ground temperature, which is the temperature of life ⎯of the living cell or galaxy emitting infrared radiation and occurring at an equal distance from the extremes. 

We are now left with the following important question: If there is no black hole at the core of the galaxy M87 ⎯ nay at the core of any galaxy in the physical universe, then what kind of energy source lies at the active galactic center behind the thick clouds of interstellar dust and gas? 

Assuming an analogy between our solar system and the galactic system, we claim that the center of the galaxy holds practically the totality of its galactic mass. Indeed, if the sun at the center of our solar system holds 99.9% of its total mass, with everything else made up of only 0.1% of the total mass, we similarly claim that practically the entire mass of the galaxy M87, namely1.3 × 1040kg, is concentrated in its galactic center. The Event Horizon Telescope has recently detected in the center of M87 a massive object of 6.5 × 109 (6.5 billion) solar masses.3 According to our theory this massive object is not a dead stellar body ⎯ a black hole ⎯ but a thick concentration of roughly 6.5 billion living suns whose total mass is about 6.5 × 109 × 2 × 1030kg = 1.3 × 1040kg, and which is the total mass of the galaxy M87. 

Thus, if the center of the galaxy M87 shines brightly in the far infrared, it is because of the thick concentration of living stars embedded in interstellar dense clouds of dust and gas. A concentration of 6.5 billion stars heat up the interstellar clouds and cause them to glow brightly in the infrared. These living suns are permanently vibrating and ageless stellar wholes, which in conformity with the work-heat equivalence principle of the 1st law of thermodynamics, continuously convert their work into heat (hydrogen consumption process) and their heat into work (hydrogen creation or restoration process), though, this second part of the cycle currently escapes our finite particular perception. Following the ancient cosmological theories of atomism (Indian and Greek Ionian atomism 2600 years ago), we can equally claim that totalities of living suns called galaxies continuously condense out of interstellar and intergalactic space and dissolve into space in a permanent circular motion between matter and space. In the overall, the total amount of matter and energy in the universe is constant despite the universe’s observed expansion, as shown by the equality between the universe’s measured mass density and its critical density ≈10-30g/cm3

The galaxy M87 galaxy, which is a totality of roughly 6.5 billion living stars whose total mass is about 1.3 × 1040kg,  is a member of the larger Virgo Cluster containing 2000 living galaxies, each galaxy being a totality of roughly 6.5 billion living stars.  Ultimately, the universe containing the totality of living galaxies, and each galaxy containing the totality of living stars is the totality of all totalities of living stars revealing therefore the self-coherent and fractal nature of the universe where the same totality of living stars is repeated in different cosmological scales. The universe therefore is not a thermodynamically dead body ⎯ a black hole of all black holes, which is the absurdity of all absurdities, but exactly the opposite, a continuously vibrating body ⎯ a permanently living star of all permanently living stars verifying the 2nd order logic.


  1. No light at the finite speed c can escape from the black hole and the infinite gravitational pull of its singularity. It follows that light must have an infinite speed to escape from the infinitely dense singularity.
  2. For example, the mass density of the sun is 1.4 × 100 g/cm3, while the average mass density of a planet in our solar system is 2.7 × 100 g/cm3. These mass densities are roughly equal to the density of the living cell, which is equal to the density of water D = 100 g/cm3=1.
  3. The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration (10 April 2019). First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VI. The Shadow and Mass of the Central Black Hole”. The Astrophysical Journal. 875 (1).

Apeiron Centre, 2019


Ion Soteropoulos

Ion Soteropoulos

Ion Soteropoulos is an independent research philosopher and scientific metaphysician who is passionately devoted to creative and transdisciplinary work. In 2002 she founded Apeiron Centre, the first philosophical organization in the world that studies the idea of infinity in dynamic connection with the finite as presented in our physical universe, society and physical body.


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