Mind and Galaxy and the Origin of Philosophy is a philosophical and scientific  development of the film Mind § Galaxy inspired by the physical and cosmological theories of the Greek Ionian natural philosophers Thales, Heraclitus, Anaxagoras, Leucippus, Democritus (6th-5th century BCE). 

Here below is the poem, which is a hymn to the glory of our Mind and Galaxy:

The Infinite mind initiates through rotation
the endless transformation of our world.
At the limit, the matter is equivalent to the mind,
and the finite to the infinite.
The mind, made of soul-particles, is infinite and self-ruled.
The Infinite mind transforms itself through rotation into a brain
of 10 billion neurons.
The pulsating brain transforms itself into a galaxy
of 10 billion stars.
The whirling galaxy transforms itself into a universe
of 10 billion galaxies.
The rotating universe transforms itself into a celestial flower
initiating thereby the backward movement of the mind.
Because they have the same number of elements,
our mind, the galaxy, and the blossoming universe
have the same power.
The mind will spread throughout the galaxy and the universe
because the mind is already the galactic universe.
Everything comes from the infinite mind and returns to the infinite mind.
The mind is our ultimate certainty and infinite wealth.

The poem starts with a definition of our mind inspired by Anaxagoras, which we develop philosophically and scientifically. We continue in this way with all the sentences of the poem.

The mind, made of soul-particles, is infinite and self-ruled.

The mind is a whirling spherical volume of space containing soul-particles. Through the mind’s rotatory action assumed to be permanent, self-caused and the product of equal and opposite attractive and repulsive forces,the soul-particles attract each other to form massive bodies, and in turn repel each other to dissolve massive bodies into their primary constituents, the soul-particles. This cycle of condensation (composition, creation) and dissolution (decomposition, destruction) of matter by means of the rotatory action of the mind is a cosmological theory held in different versions by the 5th century BCE Greek Ionian materialism (Anaxagoras, and the atomists Leucippus, Democritus) to explain the endless creation and destruction of the world. It was in Ionia, a small area of the Ionic coast of Asia Minor (Turkey), that the first rational attempt to construct a theory of the universe (of everything) as a complete whole took place during the 6th and 5th centuries BCE. The whole is geometrically represented by a spherical volume of space of unit radius r

It is reported that Greek Ionian materialism, particularly atomism can be traced back to ancient Indian atomism where we find the Vedic sage Aruni (8th century BCE) claiming “that particles too small to be seen mass together into the substances and objects of experience”(Thomas Mc Evilley, 2002). 

The smallest particles are soul-particles

The particles are the smallest pieces of matter having the smallest radii and the smallest spherical masses; they are considered in this sense, as the ultimate constituents of matter. Because of the complex nature of matter, the particles have simultaneously opposite properties; for example according to the atomists Leucippus and Democritus they are both soul and matter. The soul (psyche, anima) is according to the Greek Ionian philosophers, for example, Thales, Heraclitus, Anaxagoras, Leucippus, Democritus, the source  of energy, life, and intelligence (nous, νοῦς) within matter. Thus, the philosophical ground for Thales’ animistic vision that inanimate objects are alive and have souls is the holistic assumption that any piece of matter regardless of its size is a complex, living, spherical whole or universe admitting contrary (equal and opposite) determinations ⎯ for example the determination soul, which we replace by the modern term mind or consciousness, and the determination matter.  This means that we assume that complex matter is scale-invariant ⎯ a whole of wholes ⎯ belonging to the 2nd order logic and verifying synthetic principles of organization such as the Heraclitean principle of the unity (coincidence) of opposites, which is a principle of spherical symmetry and a principle of synthetic Logos or Reason. The principle of the unity of opposites governs the limiting surface of the spherical whole, which is the boundary where something a is simultaneously something else a′ (not-a). Thus, at the limiting boundary of the spherical whole, all oppositions are reconciled.

Insofar the soul-particles of the inanimate objects are in permanent self-motion, rotating about themselves and moving towards each other to compose massive bodies (composition or condensation process) and away from each other to decompose massive bodies (decomposition or dissolution process) these apparently inanimate objects are in their deepest recesses  animate  possessing permanent life, which is divine. Hence Thales’ justified conclusion “that all things are full of the gods”. 

Definition of the minimum

As complex rotating wholes admitting contrary determinations, the smallest particles are also both indivisible and divisible and are represented by the platonic geometric form⎯the point-line. Insofar the smallest particle has a finite size, it is an infinitely divisible line in agreement with Anaxagoras’ theory of the infinite divisibility of matter. Insofar the smallest particle has a zero size, it is an indivisible point in agreement with Democritus’ theory of the indivisibility of matter at a definite length in the microcosmic scale of lengths. 

The synthetic nature of the smallest particle is reflected in the definition of the smallest or minimum. Accordingly, the minimum, that is, the infinite according to division, is that which cannot be further divided (and hence is indivisible) no matter how much we divide it (and hence is infinitely divisible). The smallest particle is located therefore at the lower limit in the scale of lengths, there where its indivisible point-like nature closes its infinitely divisible line-like nature without destroying its infinite divisibility.

At the limit, the matter is equivalent to the mind, 

and the finite to the infinite.

 Let us take as the smallest length, the finite length 1.5 × 10-34m, which is 30 orders of magnitude less than the length 1.5 × 10-4 m taken as the radius of a spherical volume of space containing one human egg cell. Because we consider the finite length 1.5 × 10-34 m as the smallest length, we stipulate it equal to the length zero in conformity with the finite-infinite equivalence principle that governs the lower limiting boundary of the observable universe’s microcosmic scale of lengths:

1.                                                  lim1.5 × 10-34 m= 10-∞= 0 m. 

In this case, the smallest length is that finite length, which when reached gives access to length zero, or to put it differently, to any finite length less than 10-34 m. The smallest finite length 10-34 m, becomes thereby the gateway to infinity according to division. 

Determining the mass of the smallest particle

Let us subsequently postulate the general holographic principle stating that the spherical mass m contained within a given spherical volume of space of radius r does not depend on its volume, but is proportional to the volume’s limiting area A = 4πr2. In spherical geometry A = 4πr2 is equal to the square of the volume’s radius r: A = 4πr2 = r2.  We write therefore the following equation:

2.                         m ∝  A,              or             m =k A,          or             m = kr2,

where the constant of proportionality k is equal to m/r2= 3.6×10-9kg/(1.5×10-4 m)2. The mass 3.6×10-9kg is the average mass of the human egg cell and the length 1.5×10-4 m is the average radius of a spherical volume of space in which the human egg cell fits. If we replace the radius r by the smallest length 1.5×10-34 m, we then obtain the following smallest mass belonging to the lightest particle in the microcosmic scale of masses:

3.                      m = kr2 = 3.6×10-9/(1.5×10-4)2  ×  (1.5×10-34)2 = 3.6×10-69 kg.

The holographic principle

In the beginning, the holographic principle (Gerard ‘t Hooft, 2000) was used to measure the maximum quantity of information that can be contained in a specific spherical volume of space regardless of whether it is an ordinary body or a singularity. It was asserted that all information I contained in a specific spherical volume of space of radius r depends on its surface area A, which is roughly proportional to its radius squared, and not upon its volume as we could empirically expect. In this work, we generalized the holographic principle to measure the maximum quantity of matter that can be contained in a specific spherical volume of space of radius r.

The soul-particle registers two states of consciousness and matter 

Having inductively derived the soul-particle’s smallest mass from the observable mass of the human egg cell by employing the generalized holographic principle m = kr2, we proceed next to use this smallest mass for storing 1 bit of information. We claim that the above rotating or vibrating smallest mass stores 1 bit of information that registers simultaneously 2 bits of information, namely 0 describing the state of consciousness, that is, one thought regarded as a quantum of electromagnetic energy carried by a photon, and 1 describing the state of matter, that is, one sensation regarded as a quantum of gravitational energy carried by a graviton. Now this smallest and lightest mass radiates the lowest energy E:

4.              E = mc2 = 3.6 × 10-69 × (3×108)2 = 3.24 × 10-52 ≈ 10-52 joules,

that has the lowest Kelvin temperature T

5.             T = E/kB = 3.24 × 10-52 :  1.38 × 10-23/100   = 2.34 × 10-29≈10-29K (Kelvins), 

where kB is the Boltzmann constant 1.38 × 10-23J(joules)/ 100K.

This lightest mass radiates minimum energy at the longest peak wavelength λ, which is proportional to the lowest Kelvin temperature. Based on Wien’s displacement law λ = 2.89 × 10-3mK/T, the longest peak wavelength λ is:

6.                λ = 2.89 × 10-3mK/T = 2.89 × 10-3mK / 2.34 × 10-29 = 1.23 × 1026 m,

which is about the radius of the Hubble observable universe equal to 1.5 × 1026 m = 15 × 109 LY (15 billion light-years). 

The frequency f of the above longest wavelength λ= 1.23 × 1026 m is:

7.                 f = c/λ = 3 × 108 /1.23 × 1026 = 2.43 × 10-18 ≈10-18cycles/s(seconds), 

which is the lowest frequency from which we derive in turn, the lowest operational capability f ≈10-18 ops/s (where 1 cycle/s = 1 operation /s) of the smallest soul-particle storing 1 bit of information.

We call hyper-radio energy, the energy (electromagnetic or gravitational) that has the longest wavelength λ, which is approximately equal to the Hubble radius, and the lowest frequency f ≈10-18cycles/s(seconds). It is the energy that the smallest soul-particle storing 1bit of information radiates (emit/absorbs) at any time.

The mind transforms itself through rotation into a brain of 

   10 billion neurons.

Through a chain of condensations (compositions) the rotating mind’s soul-particles are transformed into nerve cells that make our brain. Based on the equation m = kr2 and taking as the boundary of the nerve cell, the limiting boundary of a spherical volume of space of average radius 5 × 10-5 m, we obtain the following average mass:

8.               m = kr2 = 3.6×10-9/(1.5×10-4)2  ×  (5 × 10-5)2 = 4 × 10-10kg ≈ 10-10 kg.

Based on the above equation, we claim that a mass of about 10-10kg identified to the nerve cell fits within a volume of space of radius r = 5 × 10-5m. If subsequently, we divide this neural mass by the smallest mass, we then conclude that the nerve cell is a condensation of 

9.                               4 ×10-10/3.6×10-69 = 1.11 × 1059 ≈ 1059 soul-particles

and has roughly the maximum operational capability:

10.                                           1059 × 10-18ops/s = 1041ops/s.

A whirling cluster of roughly10 billion (1010) nerve cells forms our biological brain of approximately 1kg mass:

11.                                                1010 × 10-10 kg = 100kg,

 which has roughly the maximum operational capability: 

12.                                             1010 × 1041ops/s =1051ops/s.

This is far from our brain’s current operational capacity, which lies in the range 1012ops/s – 1015ops/s, depending on perspective.

According to the quantum computer scientist Seth Lloyd, the maximum operational power is originally possessed by the ultimate computer (p 161, 2007). We claim that it can be equally possessed by our brain, insofar we consider the brain as a condensation of the lightest soul-particles. A brain capable of accessing its maximum operational power is an infinite brain equivalent to our divine, infinite mind. In this case, the ultimate computer is needless.

The pulsating brain transforms itself into a galaxy 

   of 10 billion stars.

Through a chain of condensations (compositions), the star-like nerve cells of our brain are transformed into neuron-like stars forming the neural network of our Milky Way Galaxy. Based on the equation m = kr2 , and taking as boundary of our star, the orbit of the Oort cloud of comets (including all orbiting planets and comets) whose radius is estimated at 50.000 AU (astronomical units) or  1.5 × 1011 m × 5 × 104 = 7.5 × 1015 m, we obtain the following mass:

13.            m = kr2 = 3.6×10-9/(1.5×10-4)2 × (7.5×1015)2 = 9 × 1030kg ≈1031kg.

Grounded in the above equation, we claim that a mass of 9 × 1030kg identified to our sun, fits within a volume of space of radius r = 7.5 × 1015m. If subsequently, we divide this solar mass by the neural mass 4 × 10-10kg, we then conclude that the sun is a condensation of 

14.                                  9×1030/4 × 10-10 ≈ 2.25 × 1040 ≈ 1040nerves cells,

and has the following maximum operational power:

15.                          2.25 × 1040  ×  2.69 × 1041 ops/s  ≈ 6.05 × 1081 ≈ 1082ops/s.

A whirling cluster of roughly10 billion neuron-like stars forms our Milky Way galaxy of mass

16.                                                  1010 × 1031 kg  ≈ 1041kg,

 and maximum operational power: 

17.                                                1010 × 1082ops/s ≈ 1092ops/s.

The whirling galaxy transforms itself into a universe 

of 10 billion galaxies.

Through a chain of condensations (compositions) the stars of our whirling Milky Way galaxy are transformed into galaxies forming the galactic net-work of our universe. Based on the equation m = kr2, and taking as the boundary of our universe, the limiting boundary of the Hubble universe whose radius is about 15 billion light-years (15 × 109 LY =1.5 × 1026 m) we obtain the following mass:

18.            m = kr2 = 3.6×10-9/(1.5×10-4)2  ×  (1.5 × 1026)2 = 3.6 × 1051kg ≈1051 kg.

Based on the above equation, we claim that a mass of about 3.6 × 1051kg identified to our Hubble observable universe, fits within a volume of space of radius r ≈ 1.5 × 1026m. If subsequently, we divide this cosmic mass ≈1051kg by the galactic mass ≈1041kg, we then conclude that the Hubble observable universe is a condensation (composition) of 

19.                                        1051/1041 ≈1010 (10 billion) whirling galaxies,

and has the following maximum operational power:

20.                                 1010 × 1092ops/s ≈10102ops/s, or (1051)2ops/s,

which in turn is our brain’s maximum operational power squared.

On the other hand, if we divide the greatest mass 3.6×1051kg by the smallest mass 3.6×10-69kg, we obtain the total number of soul-particles contained within the observable universe:

21.                                3.6×1051/3.6×10-69 ≈ 10120 soul-particles

that store 10120 bits of information that register 2n (where n = 10120) bits of information describing 2n (where n = 10120) states of consciousness and matter, of thought and sensation, which are respectively stored within the hyper-radio photons and gravitons that make up the Hubble observable universe. 

Finally, if the age of the Hubble observable universe is about 15 billion years (15 × 109 Y = 1.5 × 3×1017s) then from its chronological origin up to now, it has performed:

22.                   10102 ops/s × 1.5 × 3×1017s = 4.5 × 10119≈10119operations.

It follows that the observable universe’s ≈ 10120 soul-particles storing 10120 bits of information have performed since its chronological origin ≈10119 operations that have registered 2n (where n = 10119) bits of information, which respectively describe 2n (where n = 10119) states of consciousness and matter ⎯ of thought and sensation⎯ stored in hyper-radio photons and gravitons that carry respectively electromagnetic and gravitational energy with the longest wavelength and the lowest frequency.  

Definition of the maximum

The synthetic nature of the greatest particle ⎯ namely of the Hubble universe, which is the finite observable manifestation of the infinite physical universe⎯  is reflected in the definition of the greatest or maximum. Accordingly, the maximum, that is, the infinite according to extension, is that which cannot be further extended (and hence is an inextensible point) no matter how much we extend it (and hence is an infinitely extensible line). Thus, the greatest particle⎯the Hubble universe of finite radius r =1. 5 × 1026 m ⎯is both an infinitely extensible line representing 1-dimensionally matter in agreement with the Euclidean principle of the infinite extensibility of matter and an inextensible point in agreement with the spherical principle of the inextensibility of matter at a definite length in the macrocosmic scale of lengths.  

Because we consider the Hubble finite length 1.5 × 1026 m as the greatest length, we postulate it equal to the infinite length in conformity with the finite-infinite equivalence principle that governs the upper limiting boundary of the observable universe’s macrocosmic scale of lengths: 

23.                                           lim1.5 × 1026 m= 10= ∞m. 

We define the greatest length as the finite length 1026 m, which when reached, gives access to  the infinite length, or to put it differently, to any finite length greater than 1026 m. The greatest finite length 1026 m of the Hubble universe, becomes thereby the gateway to infinity according to the extension. However, insofar, the greatest particle ⎯ the Hubble universe ⎯ is an inextensible point, it is equivalent to the smallest particle, which through its finite size, is an infinitely divisible line and through its size zero, is an indivisible point. Ultimately, the Hubble universe has the geometric complex form of a platonic point-line, which through its line-like nature, is infinitely extensible and divisible, and through its point-like nature closes and stops its infinite extensibility and divisibility. 

The rotating universe transforms itself into a celestial flower

  initiating thereby the backward movement of the mind.

Similarly, because the Hubble universe’s 10120 soul-particles storing 10120  bits of information is considered by us as the greatest number of soul-particles, we postulate it equal to 10soul-particles storing 10 bits of information in agreement to the finite-infinite equivalence principle that governs the upper limiting boundary of the observable universe: 

24.                                                      lim10120 = 10

The Hubble observable universe containing a finite number of soul-particles storing a finite number of bits of information is, therefore, a gateway to the infinite physical universe storing an infinite number of soul-particles that store an infinite number of bits of information. In other words, it is sufficient to attain the finite number of bits 10120 to attain, in virtue of the above finite-infinite equivalence principle, the infinite number of bits 10, or to put it differently, any finite number of bits greater than 10120. The finite number 10120 is, therefore, the gateway to infinity according to the extension.

The same holds for the states of consciousness and matter, of thought and sensation, described by the finite number 2n of soul-particles contained within the Hubble observable universe. We write, therefore:

25.                                                         lim2n = 2N,

where n = 10120, N =10.  

Taking into consideration the above, we define the greatest number of soul-particles as the finite number 10120, which when reached gives immediate access to the infinite number 10of soul-particles that make up the infinite physical universe. The Hubble universe, which is the finite observable manifestation of the infinite physical universe, becomes then a celestial flower. By opening its finite number of petals or soul-particles, it unfolds the universe’s infinite number of soul-particles describing its infinite number of states of consciousness and matter, of thought and sensation, and has infinite operational power. 

Because the Hubble observable universe’s finite operational power 10102 ops/s, is considered by us as the greatest operational power, we postulate it equal to the physical universe’s infinite operational power 10ops/s, in conformity to the finite-infinite equivalence principle that governs the limiting boundary of the Hubble universe: 

26.                                                     lim10102ops/s = 10ops/s. 

Because of its maximum number of soul-particles storing an infinite number of bits that register an infinite number of thoughts and sensations carried respectively by the photons and gravitons that form the infinite universe, we conclude that the universe qua infinite physical whole is the Mind and the Sensorium of God (Isaac Newton), thinking and sensing everything at once. At this point, Cosmology meets Natural theology.  

Finally, once the infinite physical universe is reached through its finite observable part ⎯ the Hubble universe ⎯ it initiates the backward movement of the mind transforming its finite part into our brain and mind through a chain of dissolutions (decompositions). 

Because they have the same number of elements, 

    our mind, the galaxy, and the blossoming universe 

    have the same power.

We have shown how the mind is transformed into a universe through a chain of forward condensations (compositions) of its soul-particles. At the beginning the mind is transformed into the biological brain made of 10 billion of nerve cells, which are condensations of soul-particles; subsequently the brain is transformed into the Milky Way galaxy made of 10 billion stars, which are condensations of star-like neurons; the Milky Way galaxy is transformed into the Hubble observable universe made of 10 billion galaxies, which are condensations of neuron-like stars. Finally, the Hubble observable universe itself is a gateway to the infinite physical universe. 

The blossoming observable universe, in turn, initiates the backward movement of the mind, which consists of transforming the observable universe into our inner mind through a chain of dissolutions (decompositions) of the above massive bodies. This continuous cosmological cycle of condensation and dissolution is possible because ultimately, at the lower limiting boundary of the observable universe, these different massive bodies are equivalent, infinite wholes containing the same amount of infinitely divisible soul-particles and therefore having the same infinite power.

The mind will spread throughout the galaxy and the universe 

    because the mind is already the galactic universe.

    Everything comes from the infinite mind and returns to the infinite mind.

   The mind is our ultimate certainty and infinite wealth.

We vision the expansion of the mind qua finite biological brain throughout the infinite universe because the mind is already, in its ultimate universal aspect, the infinite universe made of infinitely divisible soul-particles that store an infinite number of bits of information describing an infinite number of states of consciousness and matter ⎯ of thought and sensation⎯carried respectively by the photons and gravitons of the infinite universe. The conscious universe is the outer infinite mind, and the universal mind is the inner infinite universe. 

Because our most immediate awareness is situated within our mind, as it contains our subjective experience of outer and inner worlds, we can equally create the outer universe from our inner mind and vice versa without using the chain of condensations and dissolutions. Accordingly, every time we think and sense through our mind’s soul-particles, we respectively transform our thoughts into electromagnetic energy carried by the photons, and our sensations into gravitational energy carried by the gravitons. Radiated outwards by our brain, they create our outer universe made of photons and gravitons. On the other hand, every time we receive or absorb energy through our brain photons and gravitons coming from our outer universe, they are respectively transformed into thoughts and sensations that make up our inner universe, which is our infinite mind. 

Mind and universe are therefore equivalent and diametrically opposite substances of the cosmic scale that spans from the smallest quantum scale (the mind made of soul-particles) up to the greatest Hubble scale (the universe made of galaxies), whereas the brain as the interface between the mind and the universe, is somewhere in the middle of the cosmic scale, called temperate biological scale equidistant from the extremes. Through the mind, the universe is conscious of its highest conscious self. 

© Ion Soteropoulos, Cannes, November, 2019


 References

 ‘t Hooft, Gerard. “The Holographic Principle.” arXiv.hep-th/0003004v2,16 May 2000.

Kirk, G. S, J. E. Raven, and M. Schofield. The Presocratic Philosophers. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Koyré, Alexandre. From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe. Baltimore, USA: John Hopkins University Press, 1957. 

Lloyd, Seth. “Ultimate Physical Limits to Computation.”arXiv.quant-ph/9908043v3, 14 February 2000.

Lloyd, Seth. Programming the Universe: A Quantum Computer Scientist takes on the Cosmos. New York, USA: Vintage Books, 2007.

Mc Evilley, Thomas. The Shape of Ancient Thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies. New York, USA: Allworth Press, 2002.

THE AUTHOR

Ion Soteropoulos

Ion Soteropoulos

Ion Soteropoulos is an independent research philosopher and scientific metaphysician who is passionately devoted to creative and transdisciplinary work. In 2002 she founded Apeiron Centre, the first philosophical organization in the world that studies the idea of infinity in dynamic connection with the finite as presented in our physical universe, society and physical body.

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