With the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) scheduled for launch in 2021, humanity will be pushing the frontiers of the visible further outward in space up to 14.9996 billion light years away and further backward in time, up to 14.9996 billion years ago. Indeed, the JWST mission will collect light in the infrared range emitted 14. 9996 billion years ago and only 400,000 years after the origin of the physical universe, when it was a hot hydrogen plasma called the early radiative phase of the universe.

Different meanings of the cosmic origin

By cosmic origin (popularly called the Big Bang), we mean the time zero in the past when the physical universe (spacetime) was infinitely curved into a spherical point-fire of zero radius, rotating at the speed of light while having infinite temperature and infinite density. Cosmologists call it a cosmic singularity; mathematicians call it a limiting point determining the infinite progression of numbers on the straight line, and metaphysicians call it infinite mind (Anaxagoras), energizing spirit (Stoicism), soul-fire or logos – fire (Heraclitus), real thing or thing in itself (ens realissimum) determining the infinite series of phenomena (Kant), demiurge originating the world (Plato), and first mover imparting motion to the world (Aristotle).

We can situate this cosmic singularity at the limiting circumference of a physical universe centered upon us. The time distance between us at the center in present time tnow and the cosmic singularity at the limiting circumference of the universe at time zero t0, we call the universe’s finite age tu = tnow – t0, which is roughly 15 billion years. The space distance between us at the center where the present radius of the universe isrnow, and the cosmic singularity at the limiting circumference of the universe where its radius in the past was zero r0, we call the universe’s finite radius ru = rnow – r0, which is roughly 15 billion light years. The theory asserting that our present universe at tnow has evolved from a cosmic singularity at time zero t0 in conformity with the temporal order t0 < tnow, we call the Big Bang evolutionary theory.

Basic assumption of the Big Bang cosmology

Big Bang theory assumes that inequality and time t0 < tnow (where time zero t0 in the past precedes time present tnow ) are essential properties or founding principles of the physical universe. At time zero t0 the physical universe (spacetime) was infinitely curved into a spherical point- fire a cosmic singularity of zero radius and of infinite curvature, rotating at the speed of light. At this first instant, the universe’s temperature and density were infinitely high and all things such as for instance the past and the present, were maximally united having zero spacetime distance between them. As time grew from time zero t0 to time present tnow the radius zero r0 of the cosmic singularity expanded proportionally to time up to the present radius rnow , where it has become the present universe of finite age tu and finite radius ru. Because the universe’s curvature is the reciprocal of its radius, when the radius of the universe increases, its curvature and the correlative quantities of temperature and density decrease. At time present tnow the universe’s curvature is zero, while its temperature and density on the surface of earth are temperate and equal to one.

Human progression looks backward in time

If the temporal order t0 < tnow is true, then moving forward from past to present is equivalent to moving from a universe which in the past was a spherical point-fire of zero radius r0 unifying all things, to the present flat material universe whose radius rnow of positive magnitude separates all things. It follows then, that looking backward from present to past is equivalent to the reverse process of discovering the original point-fire phase of the universe where the universe, because of its zero radius, infinite curvature and maximum rotation at the speed of light, was the first mover and unifier of all things at infinite temperature. Thus, looking backward in time is equal to searching not only for the origin of our physical universe but also more importantly, for the lost unity of our world, a unity that is no longer existent at the present time tnow, having once existed at time zero t0 when our universe was a point-fire – a unifying cosmic singularity. The origin (arche) therefore, of our physical universe has both a chronological meaning, signifying the beginning of the universe, and an ontological meaning signifying the founding principle of our universe. Indeed, at time zero when the universe’s radius was zero uniting all things into a point-fire, this point-fire was both One thing and the Unity of all things, which we call the synthetic equivalence principle governing the universe’s original fire phase.

Time as an accidental principle of the physical universe

The basic assumption of Big Bang cosmology, that inequality and time are essential properties or founding principles of the physical universe, is true if we see it from our mortal human perspective at time present tnow. However from the perspective of the very origin of the physical universe at time zero t0, which is at the same time the point of view of the divine being, then inequality and time are accidental properties or principles of the physical universe, and are therefore refutable. The negation of the inequality and temporal order (t0 <tnow ) leads us to the principles of equivalence and zero temporal order: t0 = tnow or tnow – t0 =0.

Now if from the divine perspective equality and zero time are essential properties or founding principles of the physical universe, then the universe is ageless and perfectly uniform in space and time. Its finite speed of light is therefore simultaneously infinite, immediately connecting the young universe at t0 with the old universe at tnow. This means that the universe is neither young nor old; neither past nor present but the same at all regions of spacetime. It follows that the 14.9996 billion year old infrared light collected by JWST will show us a young universe or galaxy that has, because of the equivalence t0 = tnow, the same properties as our old Milky Way galaxy – that is, a young radiative galaxy hosting water molecules and living cells. On the other hand, because this distant galaxy is flying away from us at 2999.992km/s (which is 0,9999c) and its γ factor is 70.92, the infrared light will show a flying galaxy whose mass, time interval and heat are roughly 102 times bigger than those of our milky way galaxy, whereas its volume is roughly 102 times smaller than that of our Milky Way. In other words the flying galaxy is heavier, smaller, hotter and denser, and its time runs slower.

Seeking our origin is seeking the end of violent inequality and time

Because at the origin of the universe time disappears, leaving place to eternity as permanent life and motion, our quest to understand the universe and our origin is fundamentally a quest to search for the end of violent inequality and time and to purify our universe from its accidental chronological determination in order to retain uniquely its ontological and real self-determination.

The real physical universe is self-determined (self-caused) because the spherical point-fire is not external to the physical universe (preceding or succeeding the physical universe in an infinite series of conflagrations) but is immanent to it and simultaneous with it. In fact, the physical universe is simultaneously an infinitely extended material universe when seen from the inner center, and an extensionless point-fire when seen from the outer limiting circumference. Thus the physical universe does not have a chronological origin that precedes its Euclidean materiality, but has instead an ontological and geometric origin – a unifying limiting point or point-fire, which at all times comprises and delimits its unlimited Euclidean materiality and unifies its chaotically scattered parts. Regarded as the ultimate truth and supreme good that ensures the balance, justice and permanence of our indefinitely varying Euclidean universe, the equivalence principle at time zero t0 is our origin and final destination. It is the dream point of serenity and satisfaction for our incomplete, violently disunited and time-conditioned society in progress toward its unifying principle.

Apeiron Centre, 2009


Ion Soteropoulos

Ion Soteropoulos is an independent research philosopher and scientific metaphysician who is passionately devoted to creative and transdisciplinary work. In 2002 she founded Apeiron Centre, the first philosophical organization in the world that studies the idea of infinity in dynamic connection with the finite as presented in our physical universe, society and physical body.


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